Constraints of trade process can not work

   I'am trying to build electricity trade process in TIMES, but in the results some constraints can't work. Like "ACT_BND" and "FLO_BND".
For example, the FLO_BND of a process

[Image: bt6FqD4GgUfH1TO.png]

and in results:

[Image: JdMR6LUYWhFxqbQ.png]

The activity of the process in result is much bigger than the value which I set in the FLO_BND, and when I use the ACT_BND , the acticity is still bigger than the constriants although the result is different from the result with FLO_BND.

Why it happens and which kind of constraints should I use to contral the electricity in the trade process?
Welcome to the Forum!

I cannot see any ACT_BND being defined in your screenshot, and neither I can see any years in the screenshots, and so it is not clear which parameters you are actually defining for which years, and what are the results in those years. So, your current screenshot is not sufficiently informative.

What is the topology of the process (does it have several commodities and/or both imports and exports)? And what is the primary group (PG)?

ACT_BND would define a bound on the activity. If your PG consists of several commodities and/or both imports and exports, the activity will be the sum of the flows, and the bound will be defined on that. But if that is fine to you, that should certainly work. And in your case, you seem to have only exports from HUNA to GUAX, and so and ACT_BND should work well.

FLO_BND(r,y,p,ELC,ANNUAL,UP) defines an ANNUAL upper bound on the flow(s) of ELC. Again, FLO_BND defined for a commodity is applied to the sum of the import and export flows of that commodity if the process has both import and export flows. But you can also bound the net imports by using NRG as the commodity group instead of ELC.

Remember also that both ACT_BND and FLO_BND are not by default interpolated/extrapolated, and so you should probably need to define an interpolation option as well.
Thanks a lot Antti-L!
I choose to use ACT_BND after reading you reply,and the constraints all work. After checking my setting , my fault is using a wrong gdx file to solve the model.
By the way, I use IRE_FLO to discribe the transmission loss(IRE_FLO is 0.95 when the loss rate is 5%). In results, I think it is a right way. Do you know how to discribe the transmission loss in the trade process?
Thank you very much!
Thanks for the follow up, good to hear that it works now.

You can use IRE_FLO for modelling the transmission efficiency (and thereby the loss), but alternatively, you could use IRE_FLOSUM, to explicitly allocate the losses into the importing / exporting region. For example,

 IRE_FLOSUM(reg,year,prc,'ELC','ANNUAL','IMP','ELC','OUT') = -0.04;

This would define a loss of 4%, by defining an auxiliary negative ELC output of 4% in proportion to the gross imported amount of ELC via the IRE process prc, and so the net output of ELC from the process would be 1-0.04 = 96% of the gross amount. Hence, in this case the loss would be explicitly allocated to the importing region reg. The capacity requirements for the process would be according to gross amount in both regions (importing/exporting region).
Dear Antti-L,
Thank you for your help!

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