National

National model applications of the TIMES model focus on energy planning and policy issues, taking into account renewable energy deployments, environment effects and national obligation for emissions reduction. The modeling teams interact with the National Governments in order to determine the best possible pathways for achieving policy targets.

TIMES-Sweden

Tool used TIMES
Coverage Sweden
Responsible Luleå University of Technology (LTU), This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Web link Energy Science
Description TIMES-Sweden focuses on energy, material, emissions and certificate flows and cover the entire energy system of Sweden, divided into seven main sectors (Industry, Agriculture, Commercial, Residential, Transport, “Electricity and District heating”, and Supply), following the structure and definition of energy statistics in Eurostat.The industry sector has a detailed reference energy system which includes different process steps and material flows, as an example the iron and steel industry has alternative process routes with different processes to produce raw iron, which is fed into different processes to produce crude steel all the way to a ready product. This enables the analysis to capture competition of fuels both within and between sectors. TIMES-Sweden share the main structure with the European TIMES model developed under two European projects (NEEDS and RES2020), which is in detailed described by Simoes et al.(2013). TIMES-Sweden is updated to better describe the Swedish conditions, Section 5.3 in (Krook-Riekkola, 2015).

TIMES-Sweden is being used to evaluate the impacts of Swedish energy and climate policies, such as national climate targets and building regulations. The model is currently being used to analyses the period 2015-2050 (including data for 2000-2070).

Irish TIMES

Tool used TIMES
Coverage Ireland
Responsible Energy Policy and Modelling Group, MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Web link Irish TIMES
Description Irish TIMES is a national single region energy systems model for Ireland with a time horizon to 2050. It is built with 73 energy service demands in five key energy use sectors: industry, residential, commercial, transport and agriculture. It has about 1300 technologies and contains interconnection of gas and electricity with the UK. Irish TIMES has been used to inform Ireland’s negotiations with the EU regarding 2030 energy and climate mitigation targets as well informing the Climate Action and Low Carbon Development Act 2015, the 2015 Energy White Paper and the 2016 Energy Research Strategy.
  • Czyrnek-Delêtre M., Chiodi A.; Murphy J.D.; Ó Gallachóir B. 2016 Impact of including land use change emissions from biofuels on meeting GHG emissions reduction targets - the example of Ireland Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 1–14
  • Ó Gallachóir B.P., Deane J.P., Chiodi A. 2016 Using energy systems modelling to inform Ireland’s low carbon future. Chapter in Routledge Book Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Transitions to Sustainability ISBN 9781472462954
  • Chiodi A.; Donnellan T., Breen J., Hanrahan K., Gargiulo M., and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2015 Integrating agriculture and energy within an energy systems models to assess GHG emissions reduction - a Methodological approach. Climate Policy Vol 16 215-236
  • Chiodi A.; Gargiulo, Deane, J.P., Ó Gallachóir, B.P. 2015 The role of bioenergy in Ireland’s low carbon future – is it sustainable? Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems 3(2), pp 196-216
  • Chiodi A., Taylor P., Seixas J., Simões S., Fortes P., Gouveia J., Dias L. and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2015 Energy Policies Influenced by Energy Systems Modelling—Case Studies in UK, Ireland, Portugal and G8 Chapter in Springer Book Informing energy and climate policies using energy systems models pp 15-41 (ISBN 978-3-319-16539-4)
  • Ó Gallachóir B, Deane P, Chiodi A, Glynn J. and Rogan F 2015 Energy Modelling to Inform the White Paper Report submitted to DCENR
  • Deane J.P, Gracceva F, Chiodi A, Gargiulo M and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2015 Soft-Linking Exercises Between TIMES, Power System Models and Housing Stock Models. Chapter in Springer Book Informing energy and climate policies using energy systems models pp 315-331 (ISBN 978-3-319-16539-4)
  • Glynn J., Fortes P., Krook-Riekkola A., Labriet M., Vielle M., Kypreos S., Lehtilä A., Mischke P., Dai H., Gargiulo M., Helgesen P.I., Kober T., Summerton P., Merven B., Selosse S., Karlsson K., Strachan N., Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2015 ‘Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System—National Perspectives. Chapter in Springer Book Informing energy and climate policies using energy systems models pp 359-387 (ISBN 978-3-319-16539-4)
  • Daly H.E., Ramea K., Chiodi A., Yeh S., Gargiulo M., Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2014 Incorporating travel behaviour and travel time into TIMES energy system models Applied Energy 135 429-439
  • Glynn, J., Chiodi A., Gargiulo M., Deane J.P., Bazilian M., Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2014 Energy Security Analysis: The case of constrained oil supply for Ireland Energy Policy Vol 66, Pages 312-325
  • Cahill C., Deane J.P, Curtis J., Chiodi A, Fitz Gerald J., Gargiulo M. and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2014 EU 2030 climate and energy policy framework Preliminary assessment and implications for climate policy in Ireland. Report submitted to Department of Environment, Community and Local Government
  • Deane J.P, Curtis J., Chiodi A, Gargiulo M., Rogan F., Dineen D., Glynn J., Fitz Gerald J. and Ó Gallachóir 2013 Low Carbon Energy Roadmap for Ireland. Report submitted to Department of Environment, Community and Local Government.
  • Chiodi A., Gargiulo M., Deane J.P., Lavigne D., Rout U.K. and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2013 Modelling the impacts of challenging 2020 non-ETS GHG emissions reduction targets on Ireland’s energy system Energy Policy Vol 62, Pages 1438-1452
  • Chiodi A., Gargiulo M., Rogan F., Deane J.P., Lavigne D., Rout U.K. and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2013 Modelling the impacts of challenging 2050 European climate mitigation targets on Ireland's energy system Energy Policy Vol 53 pages 169 – 189
  • Ó Gallachóir B.P., Chiodi A., Gargiulo M., Deane J.P., Lavigne D. and Rout U.K. 2013 Irish TIMES Energy Systems Model (CCRP 2008 3.1). Report published by EPA
  • Deane J.P., Chiodi A., Gargiulo M. and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2012 Soft-linking of a power systems model to and energy systems model. Energy Vol 42, Pages 303-312

EPAUS9r_US

Tool used MARKAL (currently converting to TIMES)
Coverage United States
Responsible U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Web link EPAUS9R
Description The EPAUS9r is a fully transparent, publicly available database of the U.S. energy system developed for use with the MARKAL model. The EPAUS9r represents a set of baseline assumptions characterizing U.S. energy supplies, demands, and technologies starting in 2005 and running through the year 2055 in 5-year increments. The U.S. is broken out into nine regions representing the nine U.S. census divisions. The database includes a thorough representation of climate and air pollutant emissions. The model reference case is calibrated to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), and the data is updated every two years in line with major releases of the AEO. In addition to being used in-house at the EPA, the EPAUS9r has been accessed by a large user community consisting of members representing more than 50 organizations, including 25 U.S. universities and 16 international universities or government groups from 13 different countries. Currently, the database is being converted for use with the TIMES model and will be made available in 2017.

TIMES_UK

Tool used TIMES
Coverage United Kingdom
Responsible UCL Energy Institute, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Web link UKTM-UCL
Description The UK TIMES energy systems model (UKTM) is developed by UCL Energy Institute’s wholeSEM team. UKTM is a single region model with 16 time-slices and exchanges electricity with North Ireland and other EU countries.The design of UKTM is based on UK MARKAL while a number of new features listed below are also incorporated.
  • Sectors are realigned according to research and policy questions. To enable different scenario baselines to be examined, taxes, policies and hurdle rates are added to the base model using separate modules.
  • UK MARKAL research projects have been reviewed and improved data has been added to UKTM where appropriate; these cover parts of the bioenergy, hydrogen, transport, residential, service, industrial and non-energy sectors.
  • The model baseline year is now 2010 and the model baseline is calibrated to DUKES and NAEI data for 2010.
  • UKTM includes emissions of all of the major greenhouse gases from energy and non-energy uses for the first time. New technologies are available to reduce emissions from outside of the energy system. Air pollution from every sectoris also taken into consideration in UKTM.
UKTM has been one of the principal tools used by DECC in setting the UK 5th carbon budget.

TIMES_PT

Tool used TIMES
Coverage Portugal
Responsible CENSE - NOVA University of Lisbon, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Julia Seixas
Web link sites.fct.unl.pt/times-pt
Description TIMES_PT has been developed since 2004 within the NEEDS EU research project and E2POL Portuguese research project. It has informed climate policy in Portugal in the last 10 years and has supported the design of climate mitigation policies. It represents the entire chain of the Portuguese energy system from 2005 to 2050 (in 5-year steps), including energy imports and production (e.g., oil and bio refineries), transformation (e.g., power and heat production), distribution, exports and end-use consumption, in industry, residential, services, agriculture and transport sectors and their respective sub-sectors. Although its implementation was motivated by research goals, during the past decade the model has become a major tool supporting national climate mitigation policies, and to a lesser extent, air pollution policies.
  • Estimate of CO2 Marginal abatement costs for Portugal using the TIMES_PT model. [Download]

TIMES_EE/EG

Tool used TIMES
Coverage Europe, 25 trading regions
Responsible IER-University, Stuttgart, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Web link http://www.ier.uni-stuttgart.de/index_en.html
Description The model optimises the Electricity, Heat and Natural Gas Markets of the EU-25;each member state is represented separately, the trade flows are represented explicitly and optimised too. The models have been used, together with several others, in the EUSUSTEL and CASCADE-MINTS projects.
  • The role of CHP and district heating in Europe.(CASCADE-MINTS). [Download]
  • The contribution of renewable energy to a sustainable energy system (CASCADE-MINTS). [Download]
  • The role of Nuclear CASCADE-MINTS). [Download]
  • The contribution of CO2 Capture and Sequestration (CASCADE-MINTS). [Download]
  • Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve security of supply (CASCADE-MINTS). [Download]
  • Trade-offs and synergies in a world moving towards a more sustainable energy system (CASCADE-MINTS). [Download]
  • Energy Trends For Europe In A Global Perspective (CASCADE-MINTS). [Download]
  • Electricity Alternatives in the EU (EUSUSTEL). [Download]

China_Tsinghua

Tool used TIMES
Coverage China
Responsible Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Web link http://www.tsinghua.edu.cn/eng/
Description This MARKAL model represents China as a single region. The demand for energy services is split in 30 sectors. The model represents all energy vectors of the Chinese energy balance. Its time horizon extends to 2050. The same base model is run in the three versions; technological optimum (least cost), partial equilibirium (MARKAL Elastic Demands) and general equilibrium (MARKAL-MACRO). It has been used to evaluate the imapact of different carbon mitigation policies on social welfare from MARKAL and MARKAL-ED, and on GDP, investment and consumption from MARKAL-MACRO TIMES_PT.
  • The costs of mitigating carbon emissions in China: findings from China MARKAL-MACRO modeling. [Download]
  • Carbon emission control strategies for China: A comparative study with partial and general equilibrium versions of the China MARKAL model. [Download]

TIMES_Norway

Tool used TIMES
Coverage Norway
Responsible Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Web link http://www.ife.no/main_subjects_new/energy_environment/systemanalysis
Description TIMES_Norway is a seven regional TIMES with a time horizon from 2006 to 2050 with 260 times slices annually with exchange of inter alia electricity between regions and with neighbour countries. The model covers the Norwegian renewable resources like hydro power, wind and bio and a wide range of demand sectors where especially the industry is be modelled in great detail. The model can linked with the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) where regional electricity prices from EMPS is supplied to TIMES and the electricity demand from TIMES is supplied to EMPS. The long term TIMES_Norway model was developed in 2010/ 2011, and parts of the model are based on the one region MARKAL_Norway model (2005 – 2050).

TIMES_Spain

Tool used TIMES
Coverage Spain
Responsible Unit of Energy Systems Analysis, Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Web link http://rdgroups.ciemat.es/web/ase
Description TIMES_Spain is a national energy model built in the framework of the NEEDS project and improved in RES2020, COMET and INER projects. It is a single region model with a time horizon to 2050. TIMES-Spain covers five demand sectors: industry, residential, commercial, transport and upstream and includes electricity exchange with France, Portugal and Morocco. In particular, renewable technologies, potentials and resources are modelled in detail. TIMES_Spain has been used to valuate the social, economic and environmental impacts of the promotion of renewable energies in Spain.
  • Labriet M. Cabal H. Lechon Y. Giannakidis G. Kanudia A. (2010). The implementation of the EU renewable directive in Spain. Strategies and challenges. Energy Policy 38 : 2272–2281. Elsevier
  • García-Gusano D., Cabal, H., and Lechón, Y. (2015) Long-term behaviour of CO2 emissions from cement production in Spain: scenario analysis using an energy optimisation model. Journal of Cleaner Production, DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.03.027.Elsevier
  • García-Gusano D., Cabal, H., and Lechón, Y. (2015) Evolution of NOx and SO2 emissions in Spain: ceilings versus taxes. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, DOI 10.1007/s10098-015-0923-z. Springer

TIMES_GR

Tool used TIMES
Coverage Greece
Responsible Center for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving (CRES),This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Philip Siakkis
Web link http://www.cres.gr/kape/index_eng.htm
Description TIMES_GR was first developed in the framework of the NEEDS project in 2005 and since then has been extended to include a number of features that where necessary for national energy policy. Currently the model is multi-regional with 14 geographical regions in Greece, with detailed data for wind and solar potential in each region. The electricity system is included at the level of existing power plants and a simplified version of the transmission network is also included in the model. The model is used to provide energy scenarios for the national communications on GHG emissions, for the development of RE and EE policies and the update of the National Renewable Energy Action Plan and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan.

ETSAP Applications